Barbara T. Alexander has served as a director of the Company since July 2006. Ms. Alexander has been an independent consultant since February 2004. From October 1999 to January 2004, she was a senior advisor for UBS, and from January 1992 to September 1999, she was a managing director of Dillon Read & Co., Inc. Prior to joining Dillon Read, Ms. Alexander was a managing director in the corporate finance department of Salomon Brothers. Ms. Alexander is past Chairman of the Board of the Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University and is currently a member of that board's executive committee and an executive fellow of the Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University. Ms. Alexander previously served as a director of Centex Corporation from July 1999 to August 2009, Burlington Resources, Inc. from January 2004 to March 2006, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) from November 2004 to March 2010 and Harrah's Entertainment, Inc. from February 2002 to April 2007. Ms. Alexander has been a director of Allied World Assurance Company Holdings, Ltd. since August 2009 and KB Home since October 2010. She holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in theoretical mathematics from the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
Sir Donald G. Cruickshank has served as a director of the Company since June 2005. He has been Chairman of Audioboo Ltd. since April 2010. He was Chairman of Clinovia Group Ltd. from January 2004 to February 2007 and Formscape Group Ltd. from April 2003 to December 2006 and was a member of the Financial Reporting Council, the body in the U.K. responsible for oversight of the Accountancy and Actuarial professions and for corporate governance standards from June 2001 to June 2007. Sir Donald has extensive experience in a number of areas, including European regulation and telecommunications. His career has included assignments at McKinsey & Co. Inc., Times Newspapers, Virgin Group plc., Wandsworth Health Authority and the National Health Service in Scotland. Sir Donald served as Chairman of the London Stock Exchange plc. from 2000 to 2003 and as Director General of the U.K.'s Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) from 1993 to 1998. From 1997 to 2000, he served as Chairman of Action 2000, the U.K.'s Millennium Bug campaign. In 1998, Chancellor Gordon Brown appointed him as Chairman of the Government's Review of the U.K. banking sector, and from 1999 to 2004, he served as Chairman of SMG plc., one of Scotland's leading broadcasters. Sir Donald holds an M.A. degree in law and an honorary L.L.D. degree from the University of Aberdeen, an M.B.A. degree from Manchester Business School, the University of Manchester, and is a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland.
Raymond V. Dittamore has served as a director of the Company since December 2002. In June 2001, Mr. Dittamore retired as a partner of Ernst & Young LLP (E&Y), a large international public accounting firm, after 35 years of service. Mr. Dittamore has been a director of Life Technologies Corporation (formerly Invitrogen Corporation) since July 2001. Mr. Dittamore previously served as a director of Gen-Probe Incorporated from August 2002 to September 2009 and Digirad Corporation from March 2004 to March 2008. Mr. Dittamore holds a B.S. degree from San Diego State University.
Dr. Hockfield served as a director since July 2012. Dr. Hockfield has been President Emerita of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) since July 2012 and Professor of Neuroscience at MIT since 2004. She was President of MIT from December 2004 to July 2012. Dr. Hockfield joined the faculty of Yale University in 1985 and served as Provost from 2002 to 2004 and dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences from 1998 to 2002. Dr. Hockfield was a member of the scientific staff of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory from 1980 to 1985 and a National Institutes of Health (NIH) postdoctoral fellow at the University of California at San Francisco in 1980. Dr. Hockfield has been a director of the General Electric Company since December 2006. She has been a trustee of the Carnegie Corporation of New York since September 2006. Dr. Hockfield holds honorary degrees from several U.S. and international universities and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Hockfield holds a B.A. degree in biology from the University of Rochester and a Ph.D. degree in Anatomy from the Georgetown University School of Medicine.
Thomas W. Horton has served as a director of the Company since December 2008. Mr. Horton has been President of AMR Corporation (AMR) and American Airlines, Inc. (American) since July 2010. He served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of AMR and American from March 2006 to July 2010. He served as Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of AT&T Corporation (AT&T) from January 2002 to February 2006. Prior to joining AT&T, Mr. Horton was Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of AMR from January 2000 to 2002 and served in numerous management positions with AMR since 1985. He holds a B.B.A. degree in accounting from Baylor University and an M.B.A. degree from Southern Methodist University.
Sherry Lansing has served as a director of the Company since September 2006. Ms. Lansing is the Founder and Chair of the Sherry Lansing Foundation, a philanthropic organization focusing on cancer research, health and education. From 1992 to 2005, she was the Chair of the Motion Picture Group of Paramount Pictures where she oversaw the release of more than 200 films, including Academy Award® winners Forrest Gump, Braveheart and Titanic. From 1984 to 1990, she operated her own production company, Lansing Productions, and co-founded Jaffe/Lansing Productions. In 1980, she became the film industry's first female to oversee all aspects of a studio's motion picture production when she was appointed President of Production at 20th Century Fox. She holds additional trustee, chair and advisory positions with the Friends of Cancer Research, the American Association of Cancer Research, the Carter Center and Stop Cancer, a non-profit philanthropic group she founded in partnership with Dr. Armand Hammer. Ms. Lansing is also a regent of the University of California and serves as Chair of the University Health Services Committee. She has earned the 2004 Horatio Alger Humanitarian Award, the 2003 Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship, a 2003 honorary doctorate in fine arts from the American Film Institute, the 1989 Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. Memorial Award, and the 1982 Distinguished Community Service Award from Brandeis University. Ms. Lansing has been a director of Dole Food Company, Inc. since October 2009 and RealD Inc. since May 2010. She holds a B.S. degree in speech, with a minor in English and mathematics, from Northwestern University.
Duane A. Nelles has served as a director of the Company since August 1988. Mr. Nelles has been in the personal investment business since 1987. Prior to that time, Mr. Nelles was a partner in the large international public accounting firm of Coopers & Lybrand LLP (C&L), which he joined in 1968. Mr. Nelles previously served as a director of WFS Financial Inc. from July 1995 to March 2006 and Westcorp Inc. from February 2003 to March 2006. He holds a B.A. degree in economics and mathematics from Albion College and an M.B.A. degree from the University of Michigan.
Francisco Ros has served as a director of the Company since December 2010. Dr. Ros is currently the President of First International Partners, S.L., a business consulting firm he founded in 2002. Dr. Ros was Secretary of State (vice minister) of the Government of Spain from May 2004 to July 2010. He served as a senior director of business development of the Company from July 2003 to April 2004. Dr. Ros holds an engineering degree and Ph.D. from the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an advanced management degree from the Instituto de Estudios Superiores de la Empresa in Madrid.
Jonathan J. Rubinstein has served as a director since May 2013. He was Senior Vice President, Product Innovation for the Personal Systems Group of the Hewlett-Packard Company (“HP”) from July 2011 to January 2012, and Senior Vice President and General Manager, Palm Global Business Unit of HP from July 2010 through July 2011. Mr. Rubinstein was Chief Executive Officer and President of Palm, Inc. (“Palm”) from June 2009 until its acquisition by HP in July 2010, and Chairman of the Board of Palm from October 2007 through the acquisition. He was Senior Vice President, iPod Division of Apple Inc. (“Apple”) from 2003 to 2006, and Senior Vice President, Hardware Engineering of Apple from 1997 to 2002. Mr. Rubinstein is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Mr. Rubinstein has been a director of Amazon.com, Inc. since December 2010. Mr. Rubinstein holds B.S. and M.Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from Cornell University and a M.S. degree in computer science from Colorado State University.
Brent Scowcroft has served as a director of the Company since December 1994. General Scowcroft is the President of The Scowcroft Group, Inc., an international business consulting firm he founded in June 1994. General Scowcroft is also the President of The Forum for International Policy, a non-profit organization he founded in 1993 that promotes American leadership and foreign policy. General Scowcroft served as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs for President George H.W. Bush from January 1989 until January 1993; he also held that position for President Ford during his term. A retired U.S. Air Force Lieutenant General, General Scowcroft served in numerous national security posts in the Pentagon and the White House prior to his appointments as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. General Scowcroft holds a B.S. degree in engineering from West Point and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in political science from Columbia University and holds numerous honorary degrees.
Marc I. Stern has served as a director of the Company since February 1994. Mr. Stern has been Vice Chairman of The TCW Group, Inc. (TCW), an asset management firm based in Los Angeles, since October 2005 and Chief Executive Officer of TCW since July 2009. Mr. Stern is also Chairman of Société Générale Group's (Société Générale) Global Investment Management and Services in North America (GIMS) and has been since October 2005 and a Member of the Management Committee of Société Générale, the parent company of GIMS and TCW, since May 2007. Société Générale acquired majority control of TCW in 2001. From May 1992 to October 2005, Mr. Stern served as President of TCW. From 1988 to 1990, Mr. Stern served as President and a director of SunAmerica, Inc., a financial services company. Prior to joining SunAmerica, Mr. Stern was Managing Director and Chief Administrative Officer of The Henley Group, Inc., a diversified manufacturing company, and prior thereto was Senior Vice President of Allied-Signal Inc., a diversified manufacturing company. Mr. Stern has been a director of TCW Funds, Inc., a registered investment company, since September 1992. Mr. Stern holds a B.A. degree from Dickinson College, an M.A. degree from the Columbia University Graduate School of Public Law and Government and a J.D. degree from the Columbia University School of Law.