Fair Value Measurements
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 25, 2011
|Notes to Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Note 2 - Fair Value Measurements||
Note 2. Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants as of the measurement date. Applicable accounting guidance provides an established hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability and are developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the factors that market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability. There are three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Assets and liabilities are classified based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurements. The Company reviews the fair value hierarchy classification on a quarterly basis. Changes in the observability of valuation inputs may result in a reclassification of levels for certain securities within the fair value hierarchy.
The following table presents the Company’s fair value hierarchy for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at September 25, 2011 (in millions):
Marketable Securities. With the exception of auction rate securities, the Company obtains pricing information from quoted market prices, pricing vendors or quotes from brokers/dealers. The Company conducts reviews of its primary pricing vendors to determine whether the inputs used in the vendor’s pricing processes are deemed to be observable.
The fair value of U.S. Treasury securities and government-related securities, corporate bonds and notes and common and preferred stock are generally determined using standard observable inputs, including reported trades, quoted market prices, matrix pricing, benchmark yields, broker/dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two-sided markets and/or benchmark securities.
The fair value of debt and equity mutual funds is reported as published net asset values. The Company assesses the daily frequency and size of transactions at published net asset values and/or the fund’s underlying holdings to determine whether fair value is based on observable or unobservable inputs.
The fair value of highly rated mortgage- and asset-backed securities is derived from the use of matrix pricing (prices for similar securities) or, in some cases cash flow pricing models with observable inputs, such as contractual terms, maturity, credit rating and/or securitization structure, to determine the timing and amount of future cash flows. Certain mortgage- and asset-backed securities, principally those that are rated below AAA, may require use of significant unobservable inputs to estimate fair value, such as default likelihood, recovery rates and prepayment speed.
The fair value of auction rate securities is estimated by the Company using a discounted cash flow model that incorporates transaction details such as contractual terms, maturity and timing and amount of future cash flows, as well as assumptions related to liquidity, default likelihood and recovery, the future state of the auction rate market and credit valuation adjustments of market participants. Though certain of the securities held by the Company are pools of student loans guaranteed by the U.S. government, prepayment speeds and illiquidity discounts are considered significant unobservable inputs. These additional inputs are generally unobservable, and therefore, auction rate securities are included in Level 3.
Derivative Instruments. Derivative instruments include foreign currency option and forward contracts to manage foreign exchange risk for certain foreign currency transactions and certain balances denominated in a foreign currency, and written put options to repurchase shares of the Company’s common stock at fixed prices. Derivative instruments are valued using standard calculations/models that are primarily based on observable inputs, such as foreign currency exchange rates, the Company’s stock price, volatilities and interest rates. Therefore, derivative instruments are included in Level 2.
Other Liabilities. Other liabilities included in Level 3 are comprised of put rights held by third parties representing interests in certain of the Company’s subsidiaries (Note 7). These put rights are valued with a standard option pricing model using significant unobservable inputs.
Activity between Levels of the Fair Value Hierarchy. There were no significant transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 during fiscal 2011 or 2010. When a determination is made to classify an asset or liability within Level 3, the determination is based upon the significance of the unobservable inputs to the overall fair value measurement. The following table includes the activity for marketable securities and other liabilities classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy (in millions):
The Company recognizes transfers into and out of levels within the fair value hierarchy at the end of the fiscal month in which the actual event or change in circumstances that caused the transfer occurs. Transfers into Level 3 in fiscal 2011 and 2010 primarily consisted of debt securities with significant inputs that became unobservable as a result of an increased likelihood of a shortfall in contractual cash flows or a significant downgrade in credit ratings.
Nonrecurring Fair Value Measurements. The Company measures certain assets at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These assets include cost and equity method investments when they are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired, assets acquired and liabilities assumed in an acquisition or in a nonmonetary exchange, and property, plant and equipment and intangible assets that are written down to fair value when they are held for sale or determined to be impaired. During fiscal 2011, goodwill with a carrying amount of $154 million was written down to its implied fair value of $40 million, resulting in an impairment charge of $114 million (Note 4). The implied fair value was based on significant unobservable inputs, and as a result, the fair value measurement was classified as Level 3. During fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009, the Company did not have any other significant assets or liabilities that were measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis in periods subsequent to initial recognition.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef